The Home Office announced that 379 people were arrested in the 12 months to June - the highest number of arrests since collection of data began in 2001 - as the United Kingdom suffered an intense period of deadly attacks carried out by Islamists.
Security Minister Ben Wallace said the figures show police and security services responding to "an unprecedented period of terrorist activity in the U.K".
The Home Office data showed that a record 14% of those arrested, 54 people, were women, while 17 suspects were aged under 18.
"We've seen people with mental health problems, people with previous criminal histories, we've seen people we've had no knowledge of before".
A right-wing terrorism killed a man during an attack on Finsbury Park mosque in June this year.
Mr Basu said: "It should be obvious from those figures that the scale is a huge challenge".
The new figures show a 60% jump in arrests linked to global terrorism, from 184 to 294.
While more than three quarters of the arrests were related to worldwide terrorism, there was a sharp rise in the number of arrests for domestic terrorism (from 10 to 52). He explained: "That's why we're looking at such a high number, but they are still pretty significant".
This category refers to activity linked to or motivated by any terrorist group that is based outside the United Kingdom which operates in and from third countries, such as Islamic State.
The 420% increase in terrorism with no worldwide or Northern Island related links comes amid mounting concern over far-right extremism.
Of the 105 charged, 32 have been prosecuted and found guilty while 68 are still to be prosecuted. Two cases were pending at the time the statistics were compiled.
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